Günther verfasste für die Nazi-Ideologie maßgebliche pseudo-wissenschaftliche Standardwerke. Eine Liste seiner Bücher und weitere Informationen findet man unter dem Eintrag Hans F. K. Günther auf Wikipedia (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_F._K._G%C3%BCnther). - Der Wikipedia-Beitrag enthält auch eine Abbildung des Heftes „Vererbung oder Erziehung“ (erschienen 1936 in Berlin in der Schriftenreihe des Rassenpolitischen Amtes der N.S.D.A.P. und des Reichsbundes der Kinderreichen).
Aus dem folgenden Textauszug ist zu ersehen, dass Günther sich auf John Stuart Mill (und Herbert Spencer, den maßgeblichen Begründer des Sozialdarwinismus) berief, um seinen Warnungen vor einer "ungehemmten Massenfreiheit" und seinem Gegenmodell einer "indogermanischen", nur für einen bestimmten Personenkreis geltenden Freiheit mehr Autorität zu verleihen. Mit dem Begriff und der Idee vom "Indogermanentum" an sich hat Mill nichts zu tun, was Günther auch einräumt; er beruft sich auf grundsätzliche Ideen in Mills Essay On Liberty/ Über Freiheit, die seiner Auffassung nach der Idee von der indogermanischen Freiheit entsprechen. Der unten wiedergegebene Text stammt aus einer noch von Günther selbst bearbeiteten Nachkriegs-Version. (Günther hatte einigen Quellen zufolge Kontakte zu Wickliffe Preston Draper, dem Gründer des Pioneer Fund, der seit Jahrzehnten Publikationen zur Förderung eugenischen Gedankenguts unterstützt - wird noch ergänzt; s. auch Pioneer Fund mit Stichwortsuche auf diesem Block.)
Hans F. K. Günther: Frömmigkeit nordischer Artung. Ein Querschnitt durch das Indogermanentum von Benares bis Reykjavik 7. Auflage, 1989, Verlag Hohe Warte • Franz von Bebenburg • KG (zu finden auf URL: http://www.velesova-sloboda.org/antrop/guenther-froemmigkeit-nordischer-artung.html)
Darwin und die völkische Ecke
Bevölkerungsurne und Schrumpfvergreisung: Brisante Mischung aus Zahlen, Annahmen und Emotionen vor 80 Jahren und heute.
"Anstelle eines doktrinären Allgemeinbegriffes 'Menschheit' "
Ergänzung über Günthers Verbindung zu Norwegen:
Wikipedia über Herman Lundborg: "Lundborg vertrat die Ansicht, dass bestimmte Volksgruppen rasseuntauglich seien, so z.B. Lappen, Schwarze und Juden. 1921 wurde Lundborg zum Professor und Leiter des neugegründeten Staatlichen Instituts für Rassenbiologie in Uppsala ernannt, dessen Ziel in der Erforschung der Kennzeichen wertvoller Rassen bestand." - über das Staatliche Institut für Rassenbiologie in Uppsala, Schweden (Statens institut för rasbiologi, Rasbiologiska institutet, SIFR): "Der Vorschlag für das Gesetz zur Gründung dieses weltweit ersten wissenschaftlichen rassebiologischen Institutes war von den Sozialdemokraten in den schwedischen Reichstag eingebracht worden."
Lange braune Schatten, von Michael Sontheimerhttp://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/spiegelspecial/d-49324470.html
Eugenische Netzwerke und ihr Fortbestehen “nach Hitler”: Einige von Brian Salter (2005) zusammengestellte Informationen
Brian Salter, questionsquestions.net
31 January 2005
Open white supremacy declined after World War II outside the American South. The idea that Aryans or Nordics should rule the world sounded too much like Hitler, and people shied away from it when they recognized it. It continued in many subtle forms …
The Pioneer Fund, run by Harry Laughlin and then by Major General Frederick Osborn, has continued its work. And in 1960, English eugenicists launched a new journal, Mankind Quarterly. The editor was R. Gayre of Gayre. There were two associate editors: Professor Henry E. Garrett and Professor R. Ruggles Gates. Gates had been married to Marie Stopes, whose career in England was similar to that of Margaret Sanger in the United States. That is, Stopes was committed to eugenics, and built an alliance with feminists to promote birth control. Before they parted ways, Gates had helped Stopes to launch the Society for Constructive Birth Control and Racial Progress.
The lead article in the inaugural issue of Mankind Quarterly was part one of "World Population," by Sir Charles Galton Darwin. He was a grandson of the renowned biologist for whom he was named. (… the Eugenics Society membership list includes a bewildering array of Darwin cousins.) …
One idea advanced in the journal is … that mankind is divided into four species. An early issue of the journal stated that desegregation happened because "American anthropologists were responsible for introducing equalitarianism into anthropology, ignoring the hereditary differences between races ... "
Mankind Quarterly was launched at a time when there was a great deal of discussion about integrating schools, ending a practice of running separate (but theoretically equal) schools for blacks and whites. Gayre of Gayre and Gates wrote a review together (of Race and Reason, by Carleton Putnam), in which they said that "separate schools are better for both races." …
Von Verschuer, who had significant connections with the infamous Dr. Mengele, has served on the editorial board of "The Mankind Quarterly," a racist journal whose continuing service to fascism can be seen through an examination of the footnotes to the current fascist bestseller, The Bell Curve. Hans Gunther, another Nazi scientist, joined the "Nordic League", a fascist political group with ties; through Roger Pearson, to "The Mankind Quarterly."
But perhaps the most salient evidence of continuity lies in the ongoing role of the Pioneer Fund. Set up in the 1930s by the textile magnate Wickliffe Draper to aid the eugenics movement, it remains today the principle funding source for racist science. Pioneer Fund moneys have been distributed to a number of Roger Pearson enterprises, including "Mankind Quarterly," and to such famous racists as Arthur Jensen, Phillipe Rushton, and William Shockley, the latter of whom actually proposed paying African-Americans to have themselves sterilized.
Even in Germany, the eugenics movement did not die out. The most offensive example of its resurgence after Hitler was the rehabilitation of Professor Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer.
In 1935, von Verschuer said that he was "responsible for ensuring that the care of genes and race, which Germany is leading worldwide, has such a strong base that it will withstand any attacks from outside." In 1937, he was Director of the Third Reich Institute for Heredity, Biology and Racial Purity.
Von Verschuer was Josef Mengele's mentor before the Nazi holocaust, and his collaborator during the holocaust. Mengele's horrific experiments at Auschwitz have put his name alongside those of Hitler and Eichmann. And yet, a few years after the war, von Verschuer founded the Institute of Human Genetics in Munster, where he worked educating another generation until his death in 1969. He had not turned away from his old ideas: was an adviser for the Mankind Quarterly, and a member of the American Eugenics Society.
The rehabilitation of Mengele's mentor and collaborator was not an accidental oversight. Eugenicists in America were aware of von Verschuer; several stories about him appeared in English in the Eugenical News in the 1930's. The first, a review of his book Erbpathologie, said: "Race culture, the selection of proposed cases for sterilization or marriage advice [i.e., genetic counseling] are impossible without the earnest collaboration of the entire medical profession ... In this book the author clearly outlines the duties of the physician to the nation. The word 'nation' no longer means a number of citizens living within certain boundaries, but a biological entity. This point of view also changes the obligation of the physician ... Dr. von Verschuer has successfully bridged the gap between medical practice and theoretic scientific research."
Another article about von Verschuer appeared in the Eugenical News May/June 1936. This article specifically mentions that von Verschuer intended to use twin studies to test a racist idea (the race doctrine of Count Gobineau). Mengele's horrors at Auschwitz were twin studies. There was a follow-up article in October 1937.
From Galton's research came the Galton Laboratory of National Eugenics in Great Britain, which, among other things, compiled "detailed statistics concerning the practice and results of uncontrolled breeding." (8) Galton saw it as his mission to "improve the breeding stock" of humanity. …
"I do not see why any insolence of caste should prevent the gifted class, when they had the power, from treating their [lower caste] compatriots with all kindness, as long as they maintained celibacy. But if these continued to procreate children, inferior in moral, intellectual, and physical qualities, it is easy to believe that the time may come when such persons would be considered as enemies to the State, and to have forfeited all claims to kindness.(12)
Galton eventually reached the conclusion that selection (of) individuals of the highest eugenic value "cannot even produce any great degree of artificial and temporary improvement."(10) (Anm. Blogger: Galton unterschied zwischen “positiver” und “negativer” Eugenik, und meinte, “positive” Massnahmen, d.h. Massnahmen zur Foerderung der Geburtenrate fuer wertvoll gehaltener Bevoelkerungsgruppen, haetten einen zu schwachen Effekt, wichtig sei vor allem, die Vermehrung “minderwertiger” Bevoelkerungsgruppen zu unterbinden.)
One of the disciples of Francis Galton was a man by the name of Karl Pearson (1857-1936). When Francis Galton died in 1911 he left the main portion of his estate to University College of London for a Chair in Eugenics. Pearson, a radical socialist, was chosen by Galton before his death to be the first Galton Professor of Eugenics at the college, which post he held for many years.
Pearson did not believe that everyone had the right to have children:
"The right to live does not connote the right of each man to reproduce his kind ... As we lessen the stringency of natural selection, and more and more of the weaklings and the unfit survive, we must increase the standard, mental and physical, of parentage." Darwinism, Medical Progress and Parentage (London 1912).
Pearson was an advocate of social imperialism, the evolutionary concept that so-called superior races and countries should produce more of their share of offspring than those considered to be less developed, in order to maintain their political and social supremacy. He sought to integrate the new science of statistics with evolutionary theory, calling it Biometrics. Kevles noted that oftentimes Pearson's theories went against solid biological science, but Pearson turned a deaf ear to criticism of his work by other scientists.(18)
Charles P. Davenport was another disciple of Galton's. Davenport (1866-1944) … became professor (1901) at the University of Chicago. He met Karl Pearson and Francis Galton in London in 1902, and consequent on this meeting he became obsessed with setting up his own laboratory for the study of evolution. In 1904 he persuaded the Carnegie Institute to donate ten million dollars, an enormous sum for that day, to establish a "Station for Experimental Evolution" at the Cold Springs Harbor lab.
Like most eugenicists, Davenport was a racist, and felt that Jews were "'intermediate between the slovenly Servians and Greeks and the tidy Swedes, Germans and Bohemians.'" He further felt that the great migration to American during the early part of the 20th Century of people from Southeastern Europe would make the country's population "'darker in pigmentation, smaller in stature, more mercurial . . .more given to crimes of larceny, kidnapping, assault, murder, rape, and sex-immorality.'"(19)
Davenport defended the Nazi pledge to exterminate the Jews, and endorsed the "'infinitely superior' weapon of capital punishment against Nordic and non-Nordic race polluters whose inferior genes threatened the purity of the Aryan racial gene pools of the Third Reich." (20)
Mary Harriman, the mother of future U.S. Ambassador to Russia and United Nations representative W. Averell Harriman, was an undergraduate at Cold Springs Harbor in the summer of 1905. Her family bred racehorses, and she thought that the laws of heredity used in breeding horses might be used in breeding men as well. In 1910 she was instrumental in raising money to establish a Eugenics Record Office next to Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory, which became incorporated with it in 1918.
Davenport used the office to ferret out records of people in "prisons, hospitals, almshouses, and institutions for the mentally deficient, the deaf, the blind, and the insane." He labeled these people as "defectives" Davenport was so pleased with the success of the Eugenics Records Office that he wrote to Mrs. Harriman: "What a fire you have kindled! It is going to be a purifying conflagration some day!" (21)
Charles Galton Darwin … spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. … In C. G. Darwin's words: "It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus."
(Anm. Blogger: Der Darwin-Enkel Charles Galton Darwin aeusserte die Befuerchtung, es koennte hunderte von Generationen dauern, bis der Fortpflanzungsinstinkt auf die Gefahren der Ueberbevoelkerung reagiert hat; bis dahin waere die Sorte von Menschen, die Empfaengnisverhuetung betreibt, ausgestorben, und ersetzt von der Sorte, die auf Fortpflanzung ausgerichtet ist. Er verwendete fuer die beiden von ihm charakterisierten Sorten von Menschen pseudo-biologische Begriffe. – Inzwischen gibt es zahlreiche Beispiele dafuer, wie sich das Fortpflanzungsverhalten fuer besonders vermehrungsfreudig gehaltener Gruppen innerhalb weniger Generationen drastisch aendern kann: siehe z.B. Stichwort “Libanon” auf diesem Blog.)
| <><> </>|
Verweise von Brian Salter:
Eugenics and Racism:
"If the engineer, Gottfried Feder, was the parent of Nazi economics, Hitler himself, Alfred Rosenberg, the Baltic journalist, and Professor Hans F. K. Guenther, the anthropologist, were the chief apologists of Nazi racialism."